The Indian Constitution: An Overview

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The Indian Constitution: Introduction

The Indian Constitution is the supreme law of India. It was adopted by the Constituent Assembly on 26th November 1949 and came into effect on 26th January 1950. It lays down the framework that defines the political principles, establishes the structure, procedures, powers, and duties of the government institutions, and sets out the fundamental rights, directive principles, and responsibilities of citizens.

Salient Features

  • Lengthy Constitution: The Indian Constitution is one of the longest written constitutions in the world, containing 448 articles, 12 schedules, and numerous amendments.
  • Federal System: It establishes a federal system of government, dividing powers between the central government and the states.
  • Fundamental Rights: The Constitution guarantees fundamental rights to all citizens, including the right to equality, freedom of speech, and protection against discrimination.
  • Directive Principles of State Policy: It includes directive principles that guide the government in making laws for the welfare of the people.

Key Amendments

  • 42nd Amendment: This amendment introduced the words “secular” and “socialist” in the Preamble.
  • 73rd and 74th Amendments: These amendments brought about decentralization of power and established local self-governance in rural and urban areas.


The Indian Constitution is of utmost importance as it provides the framework for governing the country and protects the rights and freedoms of its citizens. It ensures the separation of powers, promotes social justice, and upholds the principles of equality and democracy.


The Indian Constitution is a remarkable document that reflects the aspirations and values of the Indian people. It has stood the test of time and continues to guide the nation towards progress and inclusive development.


For more information, watch this video: Indian Constitution Explained


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